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  • Abrash: This term refers to a random change in a particular colour seen on a rugs' surface. This happens by chance and becomes more evident with age. It is often due to slightly different batches of wool, dye or because slightly different techniques were employed in the creation of the dye. Abrash can be artificially encouraged during manufacture of some new rugs. Natural dyes produce random abrash, while synthetic dyes result in flat tones. See Antiquarius Lecture Series.
  • Acanthus: Also known as "bear's breeches", this bright flower can be found printed as a design on many different rugs, notably on French Savonnerie rugs.
  • Achaemenid Empire: The First Persian Empire and one of the largest in history, founded by Cyrus the Great. It is said that Cyrus won Alexander the Great’s respect by impressing him with his collection of large area rugs. The Pazyryk rug, among other very old area rugs, were created during this time.
  • Afshar: A tribe of Turkic extraction living in South Persia and famed for their unique and generally small rugs, bags and trappings.
  • Agra: A city near the present border of India and Pakistan famed for great large antique carpets including those from the time of the British Raj.
  • Akstafa: A tribal rug type/area from East Caucasus.
  • All-over design: This term refers to both bold and small repetitive designs that cover the field of a rug or carpet evenly. There is no central medallion.
  • Amulets: A charm inscribed with magical incantations and symbols to protect and aid the wearer against evil.
  • Anatolia: The historic name of Turkey, a rug producing country that is the bridge between Europe and Asia. See Turkey.
  • Aniline Dyes: The first synthetic dyes invented in the mid 19th century. These dyes proved to be unstable in many cases either bleeding or losing their colour over time. "As fleeting as an aniline dye." See Antiquarius Lecture series.
  • Armenia: An independent country in the Southern Caucasus famed legendary weavers who created extraordinary rugs and carpets.
  • Asmalyk: A Central Asian weaving used to adorn the litter on a camel during a wedding procession.
  • Asymmetrical knot: A strand of wool is pulled under one warp and then over and under the neighboring warp. The ends are then pulled up to comprise the pile. Not all rugs woven in Persia use this knot. One type of knot is not better than another and all perform well. Also known as Senneh or Persian knot.
  • Aubusson: Fine tapestries woven in France.
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  • Bahkshaish: Fine antique village rugs with geometric designs and a minimal quantity produced from north west Persia as well as north east Afghanistan.
  • Baluch: A nomadic (now partially settled or seasonally migrant) peoples living in parts of Eastern Persia, Afghanistan and South West Pakistan. Balouch weavings are interesting, generally small and very soulful.
  • Balouchestan: A stretch of land from Bam in South East Persia to Quetta in Pakistan.
  • Bamboo silk: The name given to rugs made from a blend of viscose, a semi-synthetic fiber, and bamboo. While they are soft and look luxurious, rugs made with bamboo silk are susceptible to staining and crushing, meaning they are not ideal for areas with a lot of foot traffic. Due to the properties of their fibres, these rugs are also hard to clean.
  • Bergama or Pergamon: A rug producing town in West Anatolia on the Mediterranean. Rugs are produced in small surrounding villages and sold in the town itself.
  • Beshir: A tribal weaving group/type from South Turkestan, Central Asia. Many Beshirs were sold in a local town of the same name.Also spelled Bashir
  • Binding: The binding is a further covering of wool over the selvage itself which runs down the sides of all rugs. The deterioration of the selvage is designed to act as a warning to repair the sides of the rug before it is worn away.
  • Bleed/bleeding:An area on the rug where a colour has become unstable and has moved during washing into another colour of the carpet causing unsightly and unintentional colour variation. Often seen where a red colour has bled into a surrounding ivory area. See Restoration.
  • Bokhara : Important and historical center of knowledge and spirituality as well as a market of negotiations relating to production by turkmen tribes. Because of this, many Turkmen rugs were called "bukharas". This is also the name given to cheap imitations of Turkmen designs by Pakistani producers.
  • Border: The major border refers to the frame like band surrounding the field on all sides. See Minor Borders.
  • Bordjaou: A sub-type of Kazakh with a distinct design from South West Caucasus.
  • Boteh or Paisley Designs: A floral design of unknown Asian origin that gained world-wide recognition through the use of it by Paisley, a European textile designer. There are numerous meanings or interpretations of the design including a parrot, pine cone or the royal signature of an illiterate king.
  • Brocading: A weaving technique similar to but denser than kelim work. The pattern is created by 'floating' the design over the foundation. See Soumack.
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  • Camel hair: Weaving material of a soft and of lustrous quality used primarily and sparingly in old and rare tribal rugs.
  • Carpet: Term used to designate a pile weaving larger than 5' x 8' feet. See Rug.
  • Cartoon: This term applies to a loom drawing of the proposed carpet where 14 of the carpet is drawn out on graph paper outlining knots in various dots of paint. As the weavers work a singer often sings the next knot out in song saving the weaver the effort of constantly reading the cartoon.
  • Chemical Wash: Removes 'bad' colour, changes colour palette or ages a rug with a chemical bath. The technique is often extremely abrasive to the wool and strips the natural lanolin out of the wool. This reduces a carpet's life span and performance.
  • Chichi: The Chechen name given to tribal rugs and rug production in this area.
  • Chobi: A type of rug woven near the border between Afghanistan and Pakistan. These rugs were designed as a response to the demand and taste of North America in which they are very popular.
  • Chrome Dyes: Invented in the 20th century and allowed for colourfast wool dyes.
  • Cleaning: This process differs from washing and is employed when rugs can not be submerged due to condition problems or running dyes. In such instances the surface should be cleaned carefully.
  • Colour Fast: A dye that retains its original colour even after years of use, washing, and exposure to sunlight.
  • Colour-Run: An area on a rug/carpet where a slightly unstable dye has moved or moves. Colour-run is usually exacerbated with the application of water. Running is normally seen on the white and other light areas of a rug. See bleeding.
  • Condition: Used to describe the health and physical status of a rug including its surface and interior construction.
  • Corrosion: Seen when one particular colour has worn more than surrounding areas of colour. An effect of relief or embossing is created when the colours that wear faster stand out against areas of the rug with more pile. Often seen in black dyes due to high iron content which causes the wool to be more brittle and thus corrode faster. It may be possible to date certain rugs as a result of corrosion.
  • Cotton: Naturally found plant fiber, it has long been used by carpet makers especially for warp threads in rugs and city carpets.
  • Creases: Much the same as Fold-Wear.
  • Cut: A long incision into a significant portion of a rug's body or stretching across a rug's surface. Often the two pieces are merely sewed together.
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  • Dragon Soumac: A Soumac Kilim of very specific and sought after stylized design from the Eastern Caucasus.
  • Dusting: The process of removing accumulated dust caught in the middle of a rug. Dusting by hand is most effective but can be time consuming. However it is essential in order for the rug to be washed properly.
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  • Engsi or Hatchli: A tribal Turkmen rug used to cover a traditional tent door.
  • Ersari: A tribal weaving group form South Turkestan, Central Asia and North East Afghanistan.
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  • Ferehan or Fereghan: Term referring to carpets produced in a district of the same name in North Persia.
  • Field: Also called the 'background'. This is the inner portion of a rug or carpet that extends from all the inner points of the border. Medallions are often set on the middle of the field. The term 'field' or 'background colour' refers to the main colour of the field.
  • Flat-weave: Another term for a kilim. A flat weave is created through the assembly of just the warp and weft. No knots are attached to the foundation i.e. warp or weft. The design is created through the visible part of either the warp or weft on the usable surface.
  • Fold-Wear: Long lines of damage extending from the border directly into the field. This is occurs when a rug has been folded over and stepped on for some time.
  • Foundation: When the warp and weft threads meet they form the foundation. Knots are tied to the foundation and then form the pile.
  • Fringes: The wool tassels located at both ends of a rug. The fringes are, in fact, the warp threads used in the weaving of the rug and therefore run from one end of the rug to the other. It is important to never cut the fringes off your rug because it will cause it to unravel completely. Refer to the experts at Bashir Persian Rugs for a professionnal fringe cleaning or replacement.
  • Full Pile: A term used to describe pile in near perfect condition.
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  • Gabbeh: Luri word referring to large rugs with a thick pile and made by nomades living in the central area of the Zagros mountains and made to be installed underneath a tent. They are decorated with abstract motifs and used to be considered too rustic to be sold to the public up till recently.
  • Ghiordes Knot: A strand of wool is wrapped around two neighboring warp threads and is drawn together to comprise the pile. The story of the famed Ghiordian knot that could never be undone and had to be cut received its name form this source. Also known as Symmetrical or Turkish knot.
  • Goat Hair: Goat hair was often used in old and antique tribal rugs. Fibers are long and straight compared to wool and are used often to create selvages. See Lectures Balouch weavings.
  • Guard-Stripe: Refers to the very narrow border on either side of the main border of a carpet. See minor border.
  • Gul: Means 'flower' and refers to large often-octagonal motifs.
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  • Hamadan: An important rug making city and district in North West Persia. It is one of the most prolific of all rug-making districts. Hundreds of designs have originated or been reinterpreted in Hamadan.
  • Hand-made: A term that refers to a carpet made by machinery operated by human hands. It is not to be confused with a hand-knotted rug.
  • Hand-tufted: A fiber is 'shot' with a gun-like device by hand into hot latex backing with speed and pressure.
  • Handle: The way a rug feels when being flopped and shaken. A rug with a wool warp has a very different handle than a rug with a cotton warp. A wool warp creates a very blanket like weaving. Most good tribal rugs have this quality. City rugs are harder to bend due to the cotton warps.
  • Hatchlu: A type of rug that was used as entrance hangings to tents by Turkoman nomads and belonging to the Engsi family of rugs. They can be identified thanks to their unique design comprised of four symmetrical quadrants.
  • Herbal Wash: A process similar to a tea wash but employing different substances.
  • Heriz or Harris:Generally large village rugs with geometric designs from North West Persia. Older ones have wide color palette while new ones tend toward reds and blues. A collection of 30 to 40 villages are where the carpets are produced and then marketed in Heriz.
  • Holes: Obvious breaks in the mesh created by the warp and wefts.
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  • Indigo: One of the most intense and efficient sources of the colour blue. See Natural dye lectures.
  • Isphahan: A distinct floral carpet type from Central Persia woven in the city or nearby villages. Small Isphahans are often woven on a silk foundation with a very high knot count. Serafian was a master weaver who wove in Isfhahan and who normally signed his carpets with his name in the pile.
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  • Kaaba:The cubic building at the center of the Great Mosque of Mecca and the most sacred site in Islam.
  • Karabagh: A tribal rug type reputably woven by Armenian weavers in the rug producing region of the South East Caucasus.
  • Karachopt: A sub-type of Kazakh of specific design from the South West Caucasus.
  • Karadja: A village in North West Persia where carpets of a particular geometric design are woven.
  • Karagashli: A tribal rug type/area where fine, thin pile rugs originate in North East Caucasus.
  • Karapinar: A Central Anatolian village that has produced some great weavers and rugs.
  • Kashan: A distinct floral rug from Central Persia with mostly red fields and navy blue borders. Blue wefting is common in older Kashans.
  • Kashmir: An autonomous region currently engrossed in a territorial conflict between India, Pakistan, and China. It's also apparent origin of a certain number of mughal rugs.Une région autonome présentement disputée par l'Inde, le Pakistan, et la Chine. Serait l'origine (controversée) d'un certain nombre de tapis mongholes.
  • Kazakh: Also known as Cossacks, a rug producing tribal group from the South West Caucasus that has created what is among today's most collectible rugs.
  • Kerman:A fine floral rug type from the city of Kerman in South East Persia.
  • Keyserie: A floral rug from an urban weaving center in North East Anatolia.
  • Khamseh: A tribal rug type woven by the 'Turkic' tribes of SW Persia. The word means five.
  • Kilim (Kelim, Flat-weave, Tapestry weave): Warp and Weft are interlocked thus creating colour and design. Kilims are characterized by a thin 'tapestry' like feeling. They were created by nomadic tribes for their own use and were not highly considered until relatively recently. Bold design and colour as well as the weaver's spontaneity are good reasons to enjoy a kelim.
  • Knotted: This is the traditional way an Oriental rug or carpet is woven. If in any doubt ask the store or dealer to specify unequivocally on paper that it is hand-knotted rug or carpet. Knots are painstakingly tied to the warp and weft. Using different colour wool creates the design.
  • Kuba: A tribal rug type as well as a producing town from the North East Caucasus. These fine weavings were reputably woven by Armenians.
  • Kurdish/Kurds: A tribal group of people who generally inhabit Kurdistan a geographic area located primarily in Persia, Iraq and Turkey. Kurds have created some of the most creative of all tribal rugs. They are becoming increasingly sought after and collectible.
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  • Lavar Kirman: A fine floral rug type of a particular age, weave type and stylization from the city by the same name in South East Persia. They are generally much older than Kermans.
  • Lenkoran: A tribal rug type from South Caucasus.
  • Lori Pambak: A sub-type of Kazakh rugs with a distinct design from the Caucasus.
  • Luri/Lori: A tribal weaving group of South West Persia and the plains of Veramin, North Persia.
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  • Macrame: A unique technique of twisting the fringes at the end of a rug into a latticework. This is usually seen on Caucasian rugs.
  • Mahal: A carpet type as well as producing area in Central Persia. It can refer to a particular quality range and often have pale blue wefts. See Ferehan.
  • Malayer: A sub-type of village Hamadan from North West Persia characterized by little vertical white lines running from the top to bottom of a rug and seen best on the reverse.
  • Mecca: A city in Saudi Arabia that, according to muslim tradition, is the birthplace of the prophet Mahomet. This term is more commonly used to refer to the Great Mosque of Mecca, a holy pilgrimage site for Hajj, a ritual to be performed by every able muslim at least once in their lifetime.
  • Medallion: A round or cloudlike motif resting in the center of a carpet's field.
  • Medium-Low Pile: A term used in the trade to designate that while a carpet has been used it is still serviceable and usable.
  • Melas: Rugs originate from this town on the Aegean Sea in Western Turkey.
  • Meshad or Mashad: Capital of the Khorrasan province in North Eastern Persia where Afghanistan and Central Asia meet. Meshad is well known for large floral carpets often in deep burgundy palettes woven with both Persian and Turkish knots. Amoghli was a famous master weaver who worked in Meshad and produced stunning rugs.
  • Middle East: A geographical region situated in Western Asia and North Africa with a long and important history. For decades, the countries in this area, such as Persia and Turkey, have been producing the highest quality handmade rugs that are world-renowned.
  • Mihrab: A semicircular niche in the wall of a mosque that indicates the qibla; that is, the direction of the Kaaba in Mecca and hence the direction that Muslims should face when praying. The imam sits underneath the mihrab during prayers.
  • Mordant: The meaning of the word is 'to bite'. During the dying of wool the mordant is a salt that binds the dye to the wool. See Antiquarius Dye Lecture
  • Moths or mites damage: These are the natural enemy of all woolen creations. They attack rugs normally from the reverse but the damage is seen always on the front. Areas of the pile seem to completely 'bald' with no rhyme or reason. If you have this type of damage, it is imperative to consult with Bashir Persian Rugs immediately for a cleaning.
  • Mughal: Rugs and carpets woven during the reign of the Mogul Kings of Iran and North India. The term refers not only to an age but also stylistic similarities.
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  • Nain: A town to the east of Isfahan in Iran. They adapted from the Isfahan style to create their own Nain style rugs in the 1930s which almost always include silk in their pile, but can have a variety mixing wool and silk together on a cotton base. They are made using Persian knots and are very high quality rugs.
  • Nap: This term refers to the direction in which the pile falls. 'Going with the nap' means running one's hand with the smooth direction of the pile. 'Against the nap' refers to pushing against the surface of the pile in the rough direction. Nap is created by the downward stroke of cutting the wool fibers once a knot has been completed and the weaver's wants to free the ball of yarn used for that knot in order to execute other knots. The knife is held over the yarn and cut with a downward stroke. All the downward cuts together cause the fibers to slant downward and cause the smooth and rough side of the pile. Light reflects differently onto each side of the rug. It is reflected easily off the smooth side making it look lighter while being absorbed into the dark side making it appear darker. This effect can be counterbalanced by the use of lighting in a room.
  • Napthalene balls: Also known as mothballs, these are used to protect items that are susceptible to damage from moths and larvae, such as wool rugs.
  • Ninghsia: A style of antique rug from Western China.
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  • Oriental style: depending on context, can refer to a real, hand-knotted rug made in an Oriental country or a rug woven by a machine to imitate a hand-knotted carpet.
  • Oushak: A rug type and producing city in Western Anatolia. This rug style is much in demand today.
  • Overcast: Overcasting is a loose sewing technique where an area or end of a rug has been secured. This prevents further deterioration of losses to the rug.
  • Oxidization/Oxidized: See Corrosion.
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  • Paint/Painted: The changing of an undesirable colour or covering by masking it with dye after the rug was woven. The 'paint' comes out over time especially after washing.
  • Patchwork: A method that consists of sewing multiple smaller fabrics and patterns together to form a larger design, such as a rug or piece of clothing.
  • Persia: Known today by its native name, Iran. One of the largest countries in the world and the second largest in the Middle East. Persian rugs were first mentioned in ancient writings around the year 400 BC by a Greek author. Interestingly, he described them as a precious luxury product, worthy of being used as gifts; to this day, Persian rugs are still held at a high level of prestige.
  • Persian: Originating from Persia. See Persia.
  • Persian Knot: A strand of wool is pulled under one warp and then over and under the neighboring warp. The ends are then pulled up to comprise the pile. Not all rugs woven in Persia use this knot. One type of knot is not better than another and all perform well. Also known as Senneh or Asymmetrical knot.
  • Pile: Wool is knotted around warp threads creating pattern and colour. Wefts are inserted between the rows of knots. The surface one stands on or touches on a rug is considered to be the pile.
  • Polypropylene: A synthetic fiber used to make hand-tufted or machine-made rugs. Compared to wool, rugs made using polypropylene are much cheaper but they are of a lower quality. Their lifespan, on average, is around 3 to 5 years; wool rugs, on the other hand, can last for over 50 years.
  • Protein fibers: Natural fibers used in the sewing process such as wool, hair, fur, and silk. Synthetic protein fibers also exist, such as zein and casein.
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  • Qashgai: A Turkic confederation from South West Persia currently composed of seasonal nomads that weave sought after rugs.
  • Qibla: Refers to the direction a Muslim must face when praying, which is in the direction of the Kaaba.
  • Qum: An area not far from Teheran. Weaving here is a relatively new occurrence but has become well known today for the fine quality rugs woven there including pure silk rugs of silk pile and warp threads.
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  • Ram's horn motif: An interesting symbol seen frequently at the tops and bottoms of central medallions in both geometric and floral carpets.
  • Reduced: A method of avoiding a costly repair by cutting out a large damaged section of a carpet and rejoining it with the non-damaged portion of the rug.
  • Repairs: The practical maintenance of a carpet ensuring that its basic structure is maintained. This is distinct in a subtle way from Restoration.
  • Repiling: Reknotting the foundation of a carpet where either there has been wear or a hole. See Rewoven/reweaves.
  • Reselvaged: Where the selvage has worn away and a new selvage has been created.
  • Restoration: The arduous and artistic rejuvenation of major damage or wear to a carpet.
  • Rewoven/reweaves: A process in which worn areas of a carpet have been reknotted by tying the correct colors around the warp and wefts. The idea is to recreate a pattern and professionally restore the carpet back to health.
  • Rot: Where a rug or carpet has been exposed to continued water or damp and the fibers including warp and weft have lost their strength. When pressure is applied to the carpet the carpet disintegrates. Often hard to detect but when the pile is doubled over on itself and is squeezed a popping sound may be heard.
  • Rug: Generally considered to be a pile weaving smaller than 5 '0 x 8 '0.
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  • "S" designs: Seen mainly on very old tribal rugs generally pre-1850. I have heard interpretations that they may represent an old peace icon.
  • Safavid: Rugs designed during the Safavid Dynasty of Persia. These rugs were vastly different to the rugs that were being produced as village rugs during that time. Safavid rugs feature more complicated patterns and various different motifs, ranging from florals to animal and human illustrations.
  • Salor: Once the dominant of all the Turkmen tribes who lived on the Eastern Shores of the Caspian Sea. They wove rugs and bags.
  • Sajjad el Ajami: In certain regions of the world, Persians are referred to as Ajami. “Sajjad” means “carpet” in Arabic. Therefore, sajjad el Ajami stands for “Persian carpet”.
  • Sarouk or Sarough: These carpets originate from the village of Sarouk in Arak. Antiques were of high quality but later in the 20th century generally degenerated and were woven in surrounding villages as well. A much heavier type was created up to the mid 20th century that had burgundy tones. This became very popular in the United States. Today, all over the world those Sarouks are known in the trade as American Sarouk.
  • Saryk: A tribal weaving group/type from Central Asia.
  • Selvages: Refers to the sides of rugs/carpets where the warp threads have coloured wool wrapped around them. The sides of rugs have a bumpy line. This is the selvage.
  • Senneh or Seneh: This town, the capital of Persian Kurdistan, produces rugs and kelims of soft colors and exceptional quality.
  • Senneh Knot: A strand of wool is pulled under one warp and then over and under the neighboring warp. The ends are then pulled up to comprise the pile. Not all rugs woven in Persia use this knot. One type of knot is not better than another and all perform well. Also known as Asymmetrical or Persian knot.
  • Serab: A village rug often employing camel hair colours from North West Persia near the Caucasus. Wonderful runners with quirky Caucasian design elements and wide camel colour borders are made in this region.
  • Serapi: A large sparsely designed 19th century geometric village carpets from NW Persia.
  • Serviceable: A term used to describe a carpet that although old, is still useable and can be washed and cleaned with little or no adverse effect to the rug.
  • Seychour: A Caucasian tribal rug type/design with a distinct fine thin pile. There is a town of the same name.
  • Shaggy: A machine-made rug with a long, fur-like pile, resembling a long-haired dog’s fur.
  • Shahsavan: A tribal rug group from the Southern Caucasus and North Western Persia who historically wove rare and interesting rugs. The name means 'Lover of the Shah.'
  • Shiraz: The capitol of Fars Province in South Persia. Rugs here are woven by nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes living near the city.
  • Shirvan: A village where either fine rugs were woven or sold in East Caucasus.
  • Soft Claws: Nail caps for cats and dogs, a safe alternative to the inhumane act of declawing in order to protect your rugs from their paws. Please refer to the Soft Claws website for more information.
  • Soumac Kelim: Refers to a technique of further embroidering a kelim. The name and technique is believed to have originated from the town of the same name between the Black and Caspian Seas. It is an original technique that is complex and very time consuming.
  • Stable: Same meaning as Colour fast.
  • Stain: Hard to remove material that is the result of food, pet mess or other agents falling on a carpet's surface.
  • Stain Treatments: The cleaning agents and techniques used to remove the visual effects of staining from the surface of the rug.
  • Strip Removing 'paint' or changing the colour with a chemical wash.
  • Sultanabad: Large antique carpets much in demand with unusual color palettes and distinctive designs were woven late in the 19th century and early 20th in this Central Persian town.
  • Symbols: An artistic imitation or invention that is a method of revealing or suggesting the immaterial.
  • Symmetrical Knot: A strand of wool is wrapped around two neighboring warp threads and is drawn together to comprise the pile. The story of the famed Ghiordian knot that could never be undone and had to be cut received its name form this source. Also known as Ghiordes or Turkish knot.
  • Synthetic fibers: These are fibers made by humans using chemicals, as opposed to natural fibers found in other living organisms. Examples include polypropylene, nylon, and viscose.
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  • Tabas: A type of rug that is very similar to Nain rugs but of a lesser quality. They are often mistakenly called Nain rugs by inexperienced vendors.
  • Tabriz: A city in North West Persia near the border of Turkey and the Caucasus where floral carpets of note are created. Numerous people of the city are of Turkish origin. Haji Jalili was a famous master weaver from this city and his carpets are highly desirable.
  • Talish: A tribal rug type/area from the South East Caucasus.
  • Talismans: An object held to act as a charm to avert evil and bring good fortune.
  • Tea wash: Covering a carpet after it was woven with a heavy concentration of tea to "antique" it or cover bad colours. It is not permanent and over time will begin to unevenly fade. It is hard to correct this problem and a carpet may suffer a rosacia like effect over time as the tea is released in different quantities form the surface.
  • Tekke: An off-shoot of the Salor, the Tekke of West Turkestan in Central Asia became the largest group of the Turkmen and are famous for their extremely fine rugs.
  • Tinting: Also called painting. Worn areas of a rug are coloured using either inks or magic markers. Colour is rarely permanent and can come off over a long period of time.
  • Trappings: A term referring to the useful items created within textile societies. These societies created most useable equipment from textiles including bags for utilitarian purposes and equipment used with horses, camels and other livestock.
  • Tufted: All the work is executed by machine. The process is similar to Hand-Tufted except all the work is executed by machinery.
  • Turkestan: Refers to an area comprising 5 autonomous former Soviet republics east of the Caspian Sea and North of Afghanistan. The famous oasis towns of Buhhara and Samarkand are there. Numerous rug producing tribes, including the Tekke and Yomut Turkmen who are famed for their weaving prowess, settled there.
  • Turkish Knot: A strand of wool is wrapped around two neighboring warp threads and is drawn together to comprise the pile. The story of the famed Ghiordian knot that could never be undone and had to be cut received its name form this source. Also known as Ghiordes or Symmetrical knot.
  • Turkmen or Turkoman: An ethnic group native to Central Asia who produce rugs.
  • Turkey: A famous rug producing country east of Greece. It is also referred to by its traditional name Anatolia, which means land of the rising sun.
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  • Underpadding: An attachable underlayer to a rug for structure and support. These are especially useful for rugs in high traffic areas so that they do not lose their shape through heavy usage.
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  • Viscose: A semi-synthetic fiber used to give a look similar to silk to cheaper rugs. Viscose rugs tend to shed, and they also don’t hold up very well to foot traffic. If stained, they are also very hard to clean properly.
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  • Washing: The complete submersion of a rug in water in order to remove all dust as well as accumulated matter in the middle and on the surface of the rug.
  • Wear: A term used in the trade to designate how much of a pile surface has been used and worn down.
  • Wool (sheep): Used by humans for thousands of years to make not only carpets but clothing and shoes as well as many other types of objects. Wool is often dubbed the miracle fiber. See Lecture series.
  • Worn: A term used to describe that a carpet has had significant use.
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  • Youmout or Yomud: One of the main Turkmen tribes from Central Asia, West Turkestan and North East Persia who weave rugs often with a deep aubergine background colour.
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  • Ziegler Mahal: A 19th century European Company that was instrumental in designing and sponsoring the creation of unique sought after large carpets.
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